Contents

Imaging Skills for Echocardiography

©Walter Rasmussen, R.D.C.S.

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Any technique described in this guide should be performed only while under the advice and supervision of a qualified instructor or physician. This guide should only to be used for supplemental training purposes and is not intended to be used as the sole reference for the prevention, diagnosis or treatment of any disease. The reader can refer to the resources  at the end of this book for sources of authoritative diagnostic information.

General Advice and Opinion

Sonographer Injury Prevention and Ergonomics

The #1 Priorities while Performing an Echocardiogram

GE Vivid Color Doppler Adjustment Guide

Philips iE33 Color Doppler Adjustments for Echocardiography

Philips EPIQ 7 User Review

Section 1

Physics and Instrument Adjustments

Understanding the ultrasound machine

The Trans-Thoracic Echocardiographic Examination

B Mode Ultrasound (Brightness Mode)

How Two-Dimensional Ultrasound is Made

M Mode Echocardiography

Anatomic M Mode for Echocardiography

Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

Digital Clips: Ultrasound Video Recording

Prospective and Retrospective Data Collection Modes

The Advantages of the Accept Prior To Store Option

Reflection of Ultrasound Waves/The Dispersion of Ultrasound Waves

Ultrasound Sector Image Width: How it affects Frame Rate and Temporal Resolution

Ultrasound Spatial Resolution: Tools for Maintaining Ultrasound Image Clarity

Line Density: Reducing Detail to Increase Frame Rate

Zoom function for Echocardiography

Dynamic Range, Compression and Reject: Controlling Contrast

Ultrasound Post Processing: Making adjustments to Recalled Images

Ultrasound Gain Settings: Adjusting Ultrasound Image Brightness

Time Gain Compensation TGC

Auto Gain Control or Auto TGC: Letting the machine set gain levels automatically

Lateral Gain Compensation: Adjusting the sector image brightness horizontally

Ultrasound Focusing: Maximizing the resolution in the area of interest

Ultrasound Transducer Frequency: Adjusting the machine for finer detail

Dual Image Echocardiography

Doppler Ultrasound: Effective visualization of blood flow

Doppler Ultrasound Audio

Spectral Doppler Ultrasound Principles

Spectral Doppler Ultrasound and Pressure Gradients

Duplex Doppler Imaging: A tool for finding the best Spectral Doppler signal

Spectral Doppler Ultrasound Filters

Pulsed-Wave Spectral Doppler

Doppler Ultrasound Angle Correction

Doppler Ultrasound Invert Adjustment

Doppler Ultrasound Sample Volume Size

Continuous Wave Doppler

Color Doppler Ultrasound

Color Doppler Scale Key

Color Doppler Imaging Adjustment Guide

Tissue Doppler Imaging/ Tissue Velocity Imaging

Ultrasound Transducer Index Mark

Ultrasound Transmission Gel

Section 2

General Practical Knowledge

Patient Dignity and Privacy

The Routine Echocardiogram Protocol

Ultrasound Patient Positioning and Ergonomics for Echocardiography

The Technically Difficult Echocardiogram

Refining Cardiac Ultrasound Windows using Transducer and Breathing Techniques that Maximize Beam Penetration

Section 3

Performing the Echocardiogram

The Left Parasternal Window

The Parasternal Long Axis Two Dimensional Echocardiography View

Goals While Imaging the Parasternal Long Axis Anatomy

M Mode Echo from the Parasternal Long Axis

Parasternal Short Axis View

The Apical Window for Echocardiography

The Apical 4-Chamber View for Echocardiography

Avoiding a Foreshortened or “Truncated” Apical View

Recording Wall Motion and Defining Endocardium

Left Ventricular Contrast Imaging

Mitral Valve Echocardiography

Detection of Left Ventricular Thrombus

Mitral Valve Tissue Doppler Imaging

Pulmonary Vein Doppler

Apical Five Chamber View

Doppler Ultrasound of the LVOT and Aortic Valve

Doppler Assessment of Aortic Stenosis

Using The Pedoff Probe for Echocardiography

Pedoff Transducer Assessment of Aortic Stenosis

Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Echocardiography

Echocardiography of the Right Ventricle and Tricuspid Valve

Saline Enhancement for detection of Tricuspid Regurgitation

Saline Shunt Study for the Evaluation of an ASD or PFO

Doppler Echo Evaluation of Atrial Septal Defects (ASD) and Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD)

Apical Two-Chamber View for Echocardiography

Apical Long Axis-Apical 3-Chamber View

Subcostal Window for Echocardiography

Subcostal Four Chamber View for Echocardiography

Subcostal Short Axis View for Echocardiography

Inferior Vena Cava View for Echocardiography

Abdominal Aorta View Echocardiography

Suprasternal Notch Echocardiography